Bio-Research Labs #2

 

 

 

Heart Beat Investigation

 

 

 

Click a Choice Above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Running head: FEAR AND ADRENALINE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Effects of Fear and Adrenaline

On the Body

Cassie C. and Steven S.

Southern Wells High School

November 29, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

The purpose of the lab is to find out how the body reacts to fear.  Participants will be placed in a room by their self with a movie clip.  The volunteer will be monitored through heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature.  The objectives of this lab are to understand the effects of adrenaline and to notice any change in heart rate, blood pressure and or body temperature. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

                  Will a short film clip from a horror movie affect participants differently depending on sex?  The heart is, in the simplest terms, a pump made up of muscle tissue.  Like any other pump, it requires a source of energy.  This energy comes from an intrinsic electrical system.  An electrical stimulus is generated by the sinus node, which is a small mass of specialized tissue located in the right atrium of the heart.  The sinus node generates an electrical stimulus periodically, 60-190 times per minute depending on the age and activity level of the individual (www.muschealth.com, 2006).  The adrenal glands work along with the kidneys and are within all vertebrates.  Hormones are secreted from both the medulla and the cortex.  These hormones are also known as steroids which in other terms are glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.  These adrenal steroids control the availability of glucose, the body’s source of energy (www.answers.com, 2006).  Adrenaline, like any other drug, has its side effects.  First, it increases the metabolic rate and the blood sugar levels, providing a rocket-fuel like boost to one’s muscles.  It also works as a neurotransmitter, speeding up one’s responses and increases awareness.  Blood pressure and heart rate skyrocket, the blood vessels in one’s gut constrict, and the pathways to the legs and arms widen.  In short, the body is ready for action, which is where it gets the name flight or fight (Driver, 2006).  Some people call these symptoms to the body the terror management theory, to show that the nature of threatening situations influence the responses promoted (Omar & David, 2005).  The hypothesis is that if male and female participants are exposed to a horror movie clip, then the subjects’ heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature will increase more in the females.

 

Method

Participants

Five participants consisting of two males and three females, ages 15, 17 and 18 were chosen because of gender and age.  All participants were volunteers.   

Apparatuses

Movie (Darkness Falls DVD)

Laptop

Heart monitor

Blood pressure monitor

Thermometer (degrees C)

Computer

Procedure

  1. Gather all necessary materials for the lab.
  2. Measure the heart rate (a), blood pressure (b), and body temperature (c).
    1. Use a heart rate monitor to record the heart rate.
    2. Take the blood pressure with a pressure cuff.
    3. Measure temperature using a thermometer.
  3. Record the findings.
  4. One at a time have the participants watch the film clip in a darkened room.
  5. Repeat steps two and three until all participants have watched the film.
  6. Record all info onto the computer.

Results

            The findings of this lab show that not all of the participants had an increase in blood pressure or heart rate and none of them had a change in body temperature (see Figures 1-3).  The smallest jump in heart rate was 67 to 68 beats per minute and the largest was 71 to 91 beats per minute, but one of the participants had a decrease showing that their heart rate went from 76 to 69 beats per minute.  When some of the participants were watching the film clip they screamed.

 

Discussion

Will a short film clip from a horror movie affect participants differently depending on gender?  The hypothesis is that if male and female participants are exposed to a horror film clip, then the subjects’ heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature will increase more in the females.  The hypothesis was not supported because not all of the participants’ blood pressures and heart rates went up, despite the fact that the females’ heart rates went up more than the males.  Unforeseen problems that arose were that the experiment took longer to set up and do than expected.  Improvements of the lab could include the following.  Know how the lab is going to be set up and use a shorter film clip.  Would sound affect how your body reacts to a frightful situation?             

 

 

             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Dustin, Driver. (October 1, 2006). The effects of fear and phobias. Retrieved  October 20, 2006 from http://www.askmen.com

Furedi, Frank (2005, July 30). Fear? We’re reveling in it. The (United Kingdom) times. p.18 Features

The heart’s electrical system. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from http://www.muschealth.com

Shehryar, Omar and Hunt David M. (2005). A terror management perspective on the persuasiveness of fear appeals. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 15, 275-287

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure Caption

Figure 1. The participants’ blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature before watching the movie clip.

 

Figure 2. The participants’ blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature after         watching the movie clip.

 

Figure 3. The participants’ change in heart rate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1

 

Resting

Participant

Blood Pressure

Heart Rate

Body Temperature (C)

Participant 1

115/80

93

37

Participant 2

130/85

67

37

Participant 3

120/85

83

37

Participant 4

120/80

76

37

Participant 5

115/65

71

37

 

 

Figure 2

 

After Exposure

Participant

Blood Pressure

Heart Rate

Body Temperature (C)

Participant 1

120/80

103

37

Participant 2

120/80

68

37

Participant 3

124/88

96

37

Participant 4

115/62

69

37

Participant 5

84/62

91

37

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Running head: LIFESTYLES AND CRITICAL THINKING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How Individual Lifestyles Effect Critical Thinking Skills

Brittany N and Addam V

Southern Wells High School

November 14, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Logic 1

Abstract

 

The purpose of this lab is to find out if and/or how, individuals’ lifestyles affect their critical thinking skills.  In this lab participants will be selected from three different lifestyle—or hobby—groups and will be given a timed and scored logic test comprised of an array of riddles and math/logic puzzles from the three different logic categories that will, in turn, gauge their level of critical thinking.  This lab will show whether or not critical thinking skills are affected by ones’ lifestyle and which activities produce better critical thinking skills.  In addition, one will be able to see the differentiation in scores between the highest and lowest scoring participants.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Logic 2

Introduction

Do ones’ hobbies or lifestyles affect ones’ critical thinking skills?   Logic comes from the Greek word “logos,” originally meaning the word or what is spoken, however, the meaning was later changed to mean thought or reason.  It is most often defined as the study of criteria for the evaluation on arguments, although it is difficult to find an exact definition that is agreed upon among philosophers (en.wikipedia.org, 2006).

There are three different types of logic; informal, formal, and symbolic.  All three types of logic are being tested for on the Logic Test (Agostini, 1980)(math.smsu.edu, 2006)( riddles-online.com, 2006). All types of logic have most often been studied as a branch of philosophy.  Since the mid-nineteenth century logic has also been commonly studied in the mathematical and law fields.  Recently logic has been applied to computer science and artificial intelligence (en.wikipedia.org, 2006).

Studies have shown that one in every three households in America owns video games.  As a result, there has been some controversy regarding whether or not video games are bad for kids to play.  It has been speculated and tested that video games are actually good for players in some ways, such as they may be responsible for a higher level of critical thinking The same has also been said about role playing games. (taking childrenseriously.com, 2006).    The hypothesis is that if three groups are tested for critical thinking skills, then the group that plays video games will show higher scores.

 

 

 

Logic 3

Method

Participants

Nine students were involved with this lab.  Of these nine, five were female, while the remaining four were male.  All participants were either high school juniors or seniors who played video games, read, or played a musical instrument.

Apparatuses

Logic Test (see Appendix)

Clock

Paper

Pencil

Computer for graphing and typing

Procedure

1.  The logic test is created using examples of three different types of logic found on the internet.  The test contains three sections, with four questions in each section.  Point value is also assigned to each question based on the experimenters opinion of its’ difficulty level (see Appendix). 

2.  Nine participants are then selected based on their lifestyles, or “hobbies.”

3.  The logic test is then administered to the participants, who are given 20 minutes to complete as much as possible.

4.  The test is then collected and graded by the experimenters.

5.  The data is then graphed and compared to see which group scored the highest.

 

Logic 4

Results

Following the conclusion of this lab, it was observed that lifestyles—or hobbies—do, in fact, affect ones’ critical thinking skills. Three participants scored under five points, while four participants scored between six and ten points.  The two highest scores were eleven and sixteen (see Figure 1).  It was found that those who play video games scored higher than those who read or play an instrument; although those who read followed very close behind (see Figure 2).  It should also be noted that the highest scoring individual was from the video game group, while the second highest score was from the reading group.   

 

Discussion

            Do ones’ hobbies or lifestyles affect ones’ critical thinking skills?  The hypothesis is that if three groups are tested for critical thinking skills, then the group that plays video games will show higher scores.  The hypothesis was supported.  One unforeseen problem was that it was harder to find time for the participants to take the test, therefore using less participants than what was originally planned; also, some participants refused to take the test, causing the experimenters to have to find someone else.    Another unforeseen problem was that it was thought that the participants would have had higher scores.  Alternatives could have been using less questions on the test and reducing the amount of time given to complete the test.  Would the results have been different had more participants from each group been used?

 

 

Logic 5

References

Agostini, Franco (1980). Math and Logic Games.  New York, NY: Facts on File Publications.

Holds a vast assortment of math and logic puzzles. Retrieved October 25, 2006, from http://math.smsu.edu/ ~ les/carroll.html

Links video game use with increased critical thinking skills.  Retrieved November 2, 2006, from http://www.takingchildrenseri ously.com/video_games_a _unique _educational_environment

This contains a plethora of riddles and mind games.  Retrieved October 25, 2006, from http://www.riddles-online.com/maths-riddles.htm

This gives information on the origin of logic and its meaning.  Retrieved November 2,

            2006, from http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/logic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Logic 6

Figure Caption

Figure 1.  Shows the individual scores of all participants; also shows gender and hobby group.

Figure 2.  Shows each group’s total score.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1

Participant

Category

Score (out of 30 pts)

Girl 1

Video Games

6

Girl 2

Video Games

6

Boy 1

Video Games

16

Girl 3

Books

8

Boy 2

Books

11

Boy 3

Books

7

Girl 4

Music

3

Girl 5

Music

4

Boy 4

Music

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2

Group

Total Score

Video Games

28

Books

26

Music

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

Logic Test

Logic Test (30 pts)

20 min.

 

Symbolic Logic

 

  1. A number of children are standing in a circle.  They are evenly spaced and the 8th child is directly opposite the 20th child.  How many children are there altogether?

 

 

 

 

  1. Arrange 16 coins in such a way that they form 15 rows with 4 coins in each row.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. You are right next to a river and have a 5 gallon container and a 3 gallon      container. You need to measure out 1 gallon of water. How do you do it?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A 28" x 28" square metal plate needs to be fixed by a carpenter on to a wooden board. The carpenter uses nails all along the edges of the square such that there are 29 nails on each side of the square. Each nail is at the same distance from the neighboring nails. How many nails does the carpenter use?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Informal Logic

 

1.  Draw a line from start to finish.

 

 

 

 

2.  Divide the shaded part into 4 equal sections:


 

 

 

3.  Draw 4 lines without lifting up the pen so that the lines go through all the dots.

 

4. Answer the following question with “yes” or “no”:  If the day before the day after the day before today was hotter than the day after the day before today, was the day before today hotter than today?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formal Logic

 

  1. You are at a river.  With you are a chicken, a bag of grain, and a wolf.  You must cross the river in your canoe but can only take one with you at a time.  But 1) You can’t leave the chicken with the grain or he will eat it, and 2) You can’t leave the wolf with the chicken or he will eat it.  How do you get everything across the river intact?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

  1. If you were running a race, and you passed the person in 2nd place, what place would you be in now?

 

 

  1. What is so unusual about the following paragraph: 

"Gatsby was walking back from a visit down in Branton Hill's manufacturing district on a Saturday night. A busy day's traffic had had its noisy run; and with not many folks in sight, His Honor got along without having to stop to grasp a hand, or talk; for a mayor out of City Hall is a shining mark for any politician. And so, coming to Broadway, a booming bass drum and sounds of singing, told of a small Salvation Army unit carrying on amidst Broadway's night shopping crowds. Gatsby, walking towards that group, saw a young girl, back toward him, just finishing a long, soulful oration ...”

 

 

 

  1. What word, expression, or name is depicted below?

 

GR12"AVE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Tree Frog     1

Running head: CLIMBING ABILITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Tree Frog’s Climbing Ability

Nathan B. and Troy M.

Southern Wells High School

November 2, 2006

 

 

 

 

 


            Tree Frog     2

Abstract

The purpose of the lab is to identify the tree frog’s ability to climb different surfaces.  The goal for the lab is to inform the reader on a tree frog’s anatomy.  The objectives for the lab are: to understand a tree frog’s climbing ability, comprehend the significance of the tree frog’s webbed feet, and educate readers upon the tree frog’s way of life.  In the procedure the tree frogs will be placed on five different types of surfaces.  An analysis will be made on what surfaces the tree frogs will stick to.  At the conclusion of the lab, the data will be collected and analyzed into a table.  The table will show what types of surfaces the tree frogs stuck on.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tree Frog     3

Introduction

Can tree frogs scale different types of surfaces?  An amphibian is a cold-blooded, smooth skinned vertebrate.  These include frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts.  A tadpole is the limbless aquatic larva of the frog (Barker, 2004).  Mucus film is a wet adhesion to allow tree frogs to cling to surface. The pad on the bottom of a tree frog’s toe is coated with a mucus film.  This layer of fluid led scientists to think that the pads cling to a surface by wet adhesion-the force that makes a damp piece of paper stick to a window.  But it turns out that wet adhesion is only part of the picture.  Microscopic bumps on the toe pad jut through the film and make direct, dry contact with a surface.  This arrangement enables the tree frog to toggle between wet adhesion, which is useful on rough surfaces, and dry friction, which gives the frog a grip on smooth terrain (Jaffe, 2006).  Tree frogs measure less than two metric inches long and dwell in trees and moist soil.  Tree frogs live in humid, moist areas and mostly found in the eastern United States (Forrester, 2000).  If a tree frog is put on different surfaces, then the frog will show that it will stick to various surfaces.

Method

Apparatii

(2) Tree Frogs

(1) Aquarium

 Repta-spray

 Surfaces (Glass, Sandpaper, Cement Wall, Wax paper, Saran Wrap, Laminated poster,       

 Wood, Denim)

                                                                                                                         

Tree Frog     4

Stopwatch

Computer or Notebook

Pencil

References

Procedure

1. Collect all necessary material before starting the lab.

2. Spray hands with Repta-spray before picking up the tree frog (Hands should still be wet).

3.  Choose one surface to place the frog on.

4.  Carefully place the tree frog onto the surface.

5.  Measure the amount of time the frog stays on the surface without repositioning by           using a stopwatch.

6.  Observe and collect data by creating a table in Microsoft Excel or in a notebook.

7.  Repeat steps 3-6 until all surfaces have been used.

Results

            The findings for the lab showed that the tree frog’s pads stuck to all eight surfaces (see Figure 1). The times that were used to measure how long the tree frog would stick were 0-20 seconds. The frog had to reposition itself 37% of the time to prevent from falling off.  The frog remained still for 63% of the time due to its pads on its feet (see Figure 2 and 3). 

Discussion

Can tree frogs scale different types of surfaces?  The hypothesis was if a tree frog is put on different surfaces, then the frog will show that it will stick to various surfaces.  The hypothesis was proven.  Unforeseen problems include how hard the tree frogs were to handle and keeping the tree frogs alive.  An alternative for the lab would be

 

 

 

Tree Frog     5

to have a larger aquarium to put the surfaces in with the frogs and a longer time period to keep the frogs on the surfaces.  If a longer time period would be used, then more data would be collected to show how long a tree frog could stick to a surface.


Tree Frog     7

Figure Caption

Figure 1: The results of each different surface in which the frog was tested.

Figure 2: Tree Frog’s mucus filmed feet clinging to the glass.

Figure 3: Tree Frog’s mucus filmed feet clinging to the glass.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Tree Frog     6

References

Barker, Grigg (2004) Green Tree Frog Retrieved from http://www.zoo.org.au

 

Forester, D. (Ed.). (2000). Frog (2000 ed., Vol. 7). Chicago, IL: World Book INC.

 

Jaffe, E. (June 10, 2006). Walking on Water: Tree frog's foot uses dual method to stick. Science News,      

          169, Retrieved October 24 2006, from http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/200610/fob3.asp


 

 

 

Figure 2

 


Figure 3


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Venus Flytrap 1

Running head: VENUS FLYTRAP’S CARNIVOROUS HABIT

 

 

 

 

Venus Flytrap’s Carnivorous Habit and

How the Inclination Could Affect the Plant’s Life

Sierra D. and Daniel R.

Southern Wells High School

October 30, 2006


Venus Flytrap 2

Abstract

The purpose of the lab is to discover what is going to happen when Venus flytrap consumes poisoned prey.  In the procedure two plants will be tested with two different conditions; one plant will be only tested with and will eat healthy and normal flies, while the other plant will only eat poisoned flies. This lab will show what is going to happen to venus flytraps if the plants eat poisonous prey.  The lab will also give a better idea of how the eating habit of venus flytraps are necessary for plants’ living and how that habit could effect the plants’ life.  At the conclusion of the experiment, the data gathered will be tested for the precision.


Venus Flytrap 3

Introduction

            How does the Venus flytrap eating habit affect the plant’s metabolism? The Venus flytrap plant is only located North and South Carolina. The soil for which the plant grows in is acidic and nutrients that other plants thrive off are scarce in the flytrap’s soil. The flytrap still uses photosynthesis, but has evolved into a carnivorous plant. To be a carnivorous plant the plant must attract, capture, kill and digest insects or other small animals. The Venus flytrap prefers insects and arachnids such as spiders, flies, and crickets (www.science.howstuffworks.com, 2006). The Venus flytrap’s two leaves stay open until an insect stimulates two or three of the sensitive hairs that are inside the jaw leaf. Once triggered the jaw leaf beings to close, once close the flytrap begins digesting the insect just like our stomachs digest food (www.botany.org, 2006).  To keep the insects from getting out of the jaw leaf there are teeth across the edge of the leaf that forms a cage to hold the insect in (Croasdale et al, 1962). Once tightly closed the flytrap will secrete acidic digestive juices -just like our stomachs- to dissolve the tissues, enzymatically digest DNA, and to be an antiseptic to kill small amounts of bacteria. The whole digest of the insect can take up to 5 to 12 days; if the trap is older the juices are weaker and take longer than younger ones (science.howstuffworks.com, 2006). The hypothesis is if the Venus flytrap eats poisoned insects, then the plant’s metabolism will be affected and the plant will show signs of death.

Method

Apparatuses

(2) Venus flytrap

(1) Light

Venus Flytrap 4

(4) Flies

(1) Can of Dead-Sure Insecticides Spray

(3) Plastic Bowl

(1) Tweezers

Gloves

Computer

Resources

Procedure

Part 1:  Poisoning

In this part of the lab, the two of the four flies will be covered in poison.

1. Take a plastic bowl and spray a thin layer of Dead-Sure insecticides, make sure to wear gloves.

2. Then take the tweezers and carefully dip one fly and leave in the Dead-Sure for ten seconds. Repeat that process for the second fly that will be covered in the Dead-Sure.

3. Make sure to separate the poisoned flies and the non-poisoned flies by keeping the flies in different plastic bowls.

Part 2:  Feeding

In this part of the lab, the one plant will be fed poisoned flies and the other will be fed normal flies.

1.      Take the two flies that were not dipped in the Dead-Sure and trigger two or three of the sensitive hairs of two leaves on one plant with the flies.

2.      Repeat that process for the two flies that were dipped in Dead-Sure and feed them to the second plant.

Venus Flytrap 5

Part 3: Recording

1.      For flytrap one and two record daily results by writing down the changes the plant has went through until the flies are fully digested by the flytraps.

Results

            After a week long of research, the findings of this lab were incomplete because both of the plants had gone into dormancy, which just the leaves were dead or dieing before the full lab could be preformed (see Figure 1).  Each plant was to have two flies, but when the first flies were placed on venus flytrap’s leaves the plant could not eat the prey because of the condition of dormancy (see Figure 2). Therefore, none of the plants were poisoned and only showed natural metabolism. 

Discussion

How does the venus flytrap eating habit effect the plant’s metabolism? The hypothesis is if the venus flytrap eats poisoned insects, then the plant’s metabolism will be affected and the plant will show signs of death. The hypothesis was not supported. The reason maybe because the lab could not be fully preformed due to the plant’s being in dormancy. Unforeseen problems include not choosing a carnivorous plant that is in the right season. The venus flytrap should have been kept in the florescence light longer. Alternatives to the lab can include making a little greenhouse for the plants, so the plants could have been more of a humid environment. Would the results have been different if the plants were kept in a more humid environment while out of dormancy?

 

 

 

 

Venus Flytrap 6

Reference

Croasdale, H., Loomis, W., and Wilson, C. (1962). Botany: Third Edition. USA: Holt, Rinehard and Winston, Inc.

Dionaea Muscipula: Occupying Habits in the Southeastern United States of America. Retrieved October 20, 2006, from http://www.botany.org/Carnivorous_Plants/venus_flytrap.php

Information about the Venus Flytrap. Retrieved October 20, 2006, from http://www.science.howstuffworks.com/venus-flytrap.htm


Venus Flytrap 7

Figure Caption

Figure 1. Shows the non-poisoned flytrap on the right and the poisoned flytrap on the left.

Figure 2. Shows venus flytrap number two being fed a non-poisoned fly.


 

Figure 1

Figure 2

 

 

 

 

Running head: HEART BEAT

 

THE HUMAN HEART BEAT

Felecia E.

and

Ashley H.

Southern Wells High School

November 1, 2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heart Beat 2

Abstract

The purpose of this lab would be to see if the heart beat of an athlete compared to a non-athlete are different, what the heart beat consist of and how it works with the heart, and to find out what kind of affect exercise has on the human heart.  In this procedure each participant will be doing one sort of exercise.  This involves: jump roping for 2 minutes, recording what the results were after jump roping for the 2 minutes, repeating the jump roping 2 more times increasing how fast you jump each time, and then comparing the heart rate of the different ages.  This lab will analyze the heartbeat of participants ranging from the age 10-18.  This will help get a better understanding on how the heartbeat differs from different ages and as we grow up.  At the conclusion of this lab the data gathered will be compared to one another and looked at to see if there was any change.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heart Beat 3

Introduction

            Is the heartbeat of an athlete different from a non-athlete’s heartbeat?  The heart is a hollow, pump like organ of blood circulation composed mainly of rhythmically contractile smooth muscle, located in the chest between the lungs and slightly to the left and consisting of four chambers weighing about 200 to 350 grams, etc…(www.dictionary.reference.com, 2006) The four chambers consists of the two upper chambers which is made up of the Right Atrium, located in the lower and upper body, and consisting of the Left Atrium, which receives blood from the lungs.  The other two parts of the four chambers is the two lower chambers, consisting of the Right Ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs to be reoxygenated, and then the Left Ventricle, which pumps blood to the whole entire human body, and also consists of the aorta, the largest artery in the body (www.worldinvisible.com, 2006). The human heartbeat will beat more than 2.5 billion times, about 100,000 times in one day, 3.5 million times a year, and 90-120 beats per minute.  An athlete’s heart beat beats 40 times per minute.  During the first 6-12 weeks of training for an athlete the heart rate decreases 5-10%. The hypothesis is that if a group of people are required to do some sort of exercise, then the heart beats will be different among athletes and non-athletes.

Method

Participants

            This study will consist of five students consisting of four females and one male, ranging from ages 10-18 years. The participants consist of two females that are athletic and

Heart Beat 4

one athletic male. All of the participants volunteered to perform in the lab. They were informed of how the procedures of the lab would be conducted.

Apparatuses

Stethoscope

Jump rope

Stopwatch

Pencil and paper

Resources

Clock (to count how many beats per second)

Microsoft Word Charts

Computer

Procedure

Part 1: Begin exercising

In this part o the lab the participants will be jump-roping for seven minutes to get their heart rate up.

1. Gather all five participants and put them in a line, while giving each of them a jump rope.

2. When ready have one participant at a time jump rope for seven minutes at a normal jumping pace.

3. After the seven minutes listen to the participant’s heart beat with the stethoscope by placing the stethoscope on the chest where the heart is located,while timing how many beats per second the heart rate is going.

 

Heart Beat 5

4. Repeat steps two and three for the four of the participants.

5. Record each of the participant’s results by writing down what their heart beat was before and after jump roping..

Part 2: Increasing the speed

In this part of the lab all five participants will increase their speed when jump roping.

1.) Follow the steps in part one only this time for step 2, instead of jumping at a normal pace, have each participant increase the speed.

2.) Repeat steps three through six.

3.) Do this procedure one more time, still increasing the speed.

Part3: Comparison of the heartbeat.

In this part of the lab compare the results of the heartbeat of when each of the participants jump roped, increasing how fast they jump roped each time.

1.) Compare the results from the timeline of each participant.

2.) The charts describe the difference of each participant’s heartbeat of different ages.

3.) The charts explain how each of the five participant’s heart rate increased when they increased their speed during jump roping.

                                                                        Results

            In doing this lab it have confirmed that every participants heart rate varies within the age groups (See Figure 1 and 2) (The results also showed how much you weigh has an effect on your heart rate.) Each participant found himself or herself having difficulty jumping at a faster speed even if they were an athlete. As a result the group increased their speed but at the same length of time (see Figure

Heart Beat 6

2 (that shows the heart rate of the participants after they increased their speed while jump roping). The quantitative in this lab was the rate of the heartbeat after jump roping. The qualitative information in this lab was how fast the participant’s jump roped and how fast it increased their heart rate.

Discussion

            Is the heartbeat of an athlete different from that of a non-athletes heartbeat? (The hypothesis is if a group of students ranging from all different age groups being athletic and non-athletic are required to jump rope at different speeds for a total of two minutes, then their heartbeats will be different from one another.) The experiment was an alternative hypothesis that was supported and it had a negative control. Some unforeseen problems that occurred during the lab included the participants having difficulty jump roping at an increased speed depending on the shape they were in, and their body type. Also, the amount of time spent on each participant took longer than expected.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heart Beat 7

Reference

Amazing heart facts. Retrieved on October 18, 2006, from 

     http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/heart/heartfacts.html

Definition of heartbeat and heart. Retrieved on October 20, 2006, from                

     http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/heartbeat.

The human heart and what it consists of. Retrieved on October 18, 2006, from       

     http://www.worldinvisible.com/apologet/humanbody/heart.htm 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heart Beat 8

Figure Caption

Figure 1. Shows the heart rates of the participants while jump roping at a normal speed.

Figure 2. Shows the heart rates of the participants while jump roping at faster speed.

 

 

Figure 1

Participants

Age

Sex

Grade

Athletic/Non-Athletic

Heart Rate Before

Heart Rate After

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Participant 1

17

Female

12th

Athletic

48

182

Participant 2

14

Male

 

Non-Athletic

49

56

Participant 3

12

Female

5th

Non-Athletic

83

95

Participant 4

14

Male

 

Athletic

38

81

Participant 5

10

Female

 

Non-Athletic

55

74

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2

Participants

Age

Sex

Grade

Athletic/Non-Athletic

Heart Rate Before

Heart Rate After

Participant 1

17

Female

12th

Athletic

64

101

Participant 2

14

Male

 

Non-Athletic

85

147

Participant 3

12

Female

5th

Non-Athletic

78

92

Participant 4

14

Male

 

Athletic

90

107

Participant 5

10

Female

 

Non-Athletic

92

106